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Atmospheric Science

Earth Science to Protect & Preserve a Sustainable Earth

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Climate Policy

Time to act to make a positive difference

"We have to identify the problem, then act in many ways to solve the problem. Global warming is the threat of our times."
-- Jerry Brown, California Governor

"We鈥檙e going to need to use every tool in the toolbox if we鈥檙e going to solve this problem."
-- Michael E. Mann


Climate Problems, Climate Solutions

Climate Change
Global Crisis, a Global Challenge

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Strategic Demands

for Environmental Security

Earth and Space, Politics

Planet Citizen Action


2021 / 2020


Climate Plans Enforcement - Resources

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Earth Science Vital Signs 馃寧
Earth Right Now 馃寧


Measure to Manage: The Critical Importance of Atmospheric Science

2019 / 2018

OCO-3 Successfully Launched

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Op-ed: The story behind the OCO satellite that Trump tried to terminate

It鈥檚 difficult to describe all the ways this is stupid
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory's primary job is to see what's happening to the carbon dioxide levels in our atmosphere.

There were plenty of striking things about the February 12, 2018 (federal) budget news, given that it contained lots of draconian cuts that were simultaneously restored because Congress had boosted spending the week before. But perhaps the most striking among them was an item in the proposed budget for NASA: Trump wants to block the follow on to a highly successful NASA mission.

To truly appreciate just how awful this is, you have to understand the history of that satellite and what it means to the scientific community as a whole. So let's step back and take a look at why the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (or OCO) exists in the first place. It turns out it was built specifically to handle some outstanding questions of the sort that people in the administration say are important, and killing its successor would mean the existing mission never lives up to its full potential.

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* https://arstechnica.com/science/2018/02/op-ed-the-story-behind-the-satellite-that-trump-wants-dead/

You can manage only what you can measure Dr David Crisp, OCO-2, June 2014 m.jpg

Trump attempts to cut the OCO-2 and OCO-3 missions: US Congress restores them

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important greenhouse gas released to the atmosphere through human activities...


CO2 Molecule

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With optimism, even as the current US administration cuts back earth science research and OCO-2 / OCO-3 missions are now at risk, we continue to point to the critical security role science research from space has in securing national and global security.

Follow orbiting observatory missions here:


Thin Blue Layer



* https://www.greenpolicy360.net/w/Category:ThinBlueLayer


Carbon Dioxide and OCO-2 Data: Earth Science that Counts


NASA Media / "Following Carbon Dioxide Through the Atmosphere" | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=syU1rRCp7E8

NASA OCO-2, critical measurements, critical mission -- https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12478
The OCO-2 mission greatly expands the ability to observe atmospheric carbon dioxide. OCO-2 collects high-precision, total column measurements of carbon dioxide (from the sensor to Earth鈥檚 surface) during daylight conditions.
Scientists can use model results to understand and predict where carbon dioxide is being emitted and removed from the atmosphere and how much is from natural processes and human activities.
OCO-2's unprecedented science is "a step toward answering critical questions about carbon dioxide and Earth's climate future."


Record Surge in CO2


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Via the LA Times / Oct 2017

How NASA tracks carbon emissions from space to better understand 鈥 and deal with 鈥 climate change

Global temperatures have been on the rise, thanks largely to the human-driven increase in greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide. But not all of the carbon dioxide produced each year ends up in the atmosphere. Some of it ends up trapped in the ocean, or locked on land thanks to plants that use the gas during photosynthesis.

鈥淲e know how much we鈥檙e emitting when we burn fossil fuel, and we see that about half of it stays in the atmosphere and the other half appears to go get absorbed into the land and the ocean,鈥 said Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) atmospheric scientist Annmarie Eldering, the mission鈥檚 deputy project scientist. 鈥淏ut there are still these questions of which parts of the land are doing that.鈥

Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2, or OCO-2, was launched in July 2014 to help discover those mechanisms and solve that mystery...

鈥淣ow we can see that the tropical forest and plants didn鈥檛 absorb as much carbon as they usually do and that鈥檚 what caused this big increase in that time period,鈥 Eldering explains.

Drought and higher temperatures have been linked to the climate change fueled by greenhouse gases. Now, it seems that there could be a vicious cycle at work.

鈥淭he projections of climate suggest there will be more heat and there will be more drought in the future,鈥 Eldering says. 鈥淭his would suggest that with more warmth and more heat, we鈥檒l have more carbon left in the atmosphere, so that would even accelerate the growth rate of carbon dioxide.鈥

The results should help experts develop more effective strategies to deal with climate change in the future.

鈥淚f you want to make a good plan, you鈥檝e got to have some good information,鈥 she says. 鈥淭his is going to add to that information, and hopefully be reflected in a better plan down the road.鈥

The findings come a few months after President Trump鈥檚 budget plan proposed to cut OCO-3, a follow-up mission that would continue OCO-2鈥檚 work.

More at Climate News

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OCO-2 / Orbiting Carbon Observatory Mission

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Tracking the Status of OCO-3 and Science of OCO-2

Trump administration budget puts NASA earth science and OCO-3 in jeopardy

I am OCO-2 / Reporting home, follow my tweets from space / Update: The Trump administration shuts down OCO-2 social media 'tweets'

Climate deniers blame global warming on nature. This NASA data begs to differ

Earth atmosphere emission data begins to be made available -- Sept 2015

OCO-2 "Game Changing" Earth Science

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New Definitions of National Security

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Mission Reports

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) team refines mission... OCO-2 will orbit closer to CloudSat and CALIPSO in the Afternoon "A-Train" of Earth-circling satellites.

OCO-2 research team changes of OCO-2 orbit to enable pairing up one million daily measurements of carbon dioxide made by OCO-2 with cloud and aerosol measurements made by the other A-Train satellites.

Instrument calibration and data reprocessing updates result in improved visualizations of how carbon is moving around the planet, as baseline data is gathered and studied.

"Planet citizens/planet scientists" can now enter and utilize the Earth Observation open access database.

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March/April 2015

Follow OCO-2

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February 2015

December 2014

Historic Orbiting Carbon Observatory Satellite Sends Back Most Detailed CO2 View Ever / Dec 18, 2014

The 'Initial Level 1 round' of data was made available to the public on Dec 30, 2014.

A full Level 2 set of CO2 data was made available in March for scientists and the public "planet citizens" to download and explore.





OCO-2 Data Portal

OCO-2 Data Center

Counting carbon over Southern California - OCO-2

October 2014

Mission status report


OCO Orbit



August 13th/Climate Central news report of first data

NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory scientist who develops software algorithms for OCO to retrieve information about carbon dioxide in our atmosphere

July 2, 2014

OCO-2 Mission Overview

NASA Launches New Carbon-Sensing Mission to Monitor Earth鈥檚 Breathing

"Climate change is the challenge of our generation," says NASA Administrator Charles Bolden.

Follow the tweets of the OCO-2 bird

OCO-2, a "game changer"... Follow the NASA climate blog

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Earth Right Now
OCO Mission teams

"Game changing" science Unraveling mysteries

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Observing Global Warming with #OCO-2

Historic launch #PlanetCitizen mission to study #EarthsAtmosphere

"First Light!" [1] [2] OCO-2 announces 'We have data!'

OCO-2 tweets - https://twitter.com/IamOCO2

What monitoring a potential existential crisis looks like...spectra from #OCO-2 #Earth360

Earth observing satellites, Orbiting Carbon Observatory the "Afternoon Constellation", the "A-Train" joined by 鈥#鈥嶰CO-2 newly launched and historic in its mission to study global warming

"Watching the Earth Breathe from Space"

About the Earth Observatory Mission

OCO-2 Infographic

Where the Trees Are - US

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The OCO-2 Project primary science objective is to collect the first space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with the precision, resolution and coverage needed to characterize its sources and sinks and quantify their variability over the seasonal cycle. During its two-year mission, OCO-2 will fly in a sun-synchronous, near-polar orbit with a group of Earth-orbiting satellites with synergistic science objectives whose ascending node crosses the equator near 13:30 hours Mean Local Time (MLT). Near-global coverage of the sunlit portion of Earth is provided in this orbit over a 16-day (233-revolution) repeat cycle. OCO-2鈥檚 single instrument incorporates three high-resolution grating spectrometers, designed to measure the near-infrared absorption of reflected sunlight by carbon dioxide and molecular oxygen.

Further objectives include:

- Retrieve estimates of the column-averaged carbon dioxide dry air mole fraction (XCO2) on regional scales (1,000 kilometers or greater) from space-based measurements of the absorption of reflected sunlight by atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen, collected in cloud-free scenes at least 80 percent of the range of latitudes on the sunlit hemisphere at monthly intervals for two years.

- Compare space-based and ground-based XCO2 retrievals from soundings collected during overflights of three or more primary ground validation sites at least once each season to identify and correct global-scale systematic biases in the space-based XCO2 product and to demonstrate a precision of 0.3 percent or less for collections of 100 or more cloud-free soundings.

- Record, validate, publish and deliver science data records and calibrated geophysical data products to the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center for use by the scientific community.

- Validate a space-based measurement approach and analysis concept that could be used for future systematic carbon dioxide monitoring missions.

Overview of key mission goals for OCO's atmospheric science:

Message One: The burning of fossil fuels and other human activities are currently adding more than 36 billion tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere each year, producing an unprecedented buildup in this important greenhouse gas. OCO-2 provides a new tool for understanding the sources of carbon dioxide emissions and how they are changing over time.

Message Two: Less than half of the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by human activities stays there. The location and identity of the natural 鈥渟inks鈥 that are absorbing the rest of this carbon dioxide are currently not well understood. OCO-2 will help solve this critical scientific puzzle.

Sub-message: Knowing what parts of Earth are helping remove carbon from the atmosphere will help us understand if they will keep doing so in the future. OCO-2 measurements will help scientists construct better models to predict how much carbon dioxide these sinks will be able to absorb in the future.

Message Three: The innovative technologies incorporated into OCO-2 will enable space-based measurements of carbon dioxide with the sensitivity, resolution and coverage needed to understand human and natural sources of carbon dioxide emissions and the natural sinks that control its buildup, at regional scales, everywhere on Earth.

Sub-message: To control carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, we need to be able to measure it. We can only manage what we can measure.

Message Four: OCO-2 will help assess the usefulness of space-based measurements of carbon dioxide for managing emissions of this important greenhouse gas.

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The launch of OCO-2, a "game changer", expands #Earth360 science in unprecedented ways

#EarthScience data enables intelligence, informed decisions, and policy

Earth is in our hands, #PlanetCitizens

"You can manage only what you can measure"

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Earth Science data is coming in and being openly distributed

Be a Planet Citizen, a Citizen Scientist

Use your digital tools as a Planet Scientist and Citizen

Take up the challenge with NEX and #OpenSource and #PlanetAPI ventures available for the first time

NASA NEX Earth Sciences Asks the Public to Join In

Add your #PlanetCitizen talent to a future of seeing with an #EarthPOV

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Eyes on the Earth

NASA's 'Eyes on the Earth' Gets Sharper Vision

NASA's Eyes Monitor Our Planet's Vital Signs

Earth Science, Vital Signs

Earth Right Now

NASA/JPL Education

NASA Climate

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Establishing an Era of Earth Science Measuring & Monitoring

Steven J. Schmidt: Remembering Congressman George E. Brown, instrumental in setting in motion the first era of earth science and atmospheric research from space. As the 'big science' advocate, member and chairman of the U.S. House Committee on Science, Space & Technology for three decades, Representative Brown's legacy is unparalleled.

As a trained engineer, George greatly valued the importance of facts, data, science and knowledge as a guide to decision-making and policy that looked to the future and environmental protection and security. Congressman Brown authored the first National Climate Act in 1978 and for years led the creation of scientific programs to gather critically important data.

For some forty years George Brown led science, atmospheric science, earth science, ocean science, educational initiatives, first gen, non-military government research & development, environment and technology initiatives, setting in place a strong foundation on which we have continued to build and advance shared goals since his passing in 1999.

George E. Brown Jr
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Official portrait - https://history.house.gov/Collection/Detail/29123
* https://www.greenpolicy360.net/w/George_E._Brown_Jr

Planet Citizens, Planet Scientists, Preserving & Protecting the Home Planet Earth

GreenPolicy360 Siterunner / SJS: In the 1960s and 1970s, George E. Brown proposed and set in motion a first generation of Earth Science missions and programs that continued lover the decades. The original Mission Statement of a newly launched U.S. space program spoke of our planet and our responsibilities to 'manage' our planet's living, changing systems. George's work was operational in turning the mission to reality.

When one looks at today's Earth Science Research from Space and accumulative science data acquired over the decades, we are seeing the results of George's vision. As an engineer with a physics background, he knew we would need good scientific data to make the decisions guiding how we respond to the great challenges of our times, the existential threats on multiple fronts, and we are tapping into the results of programs designed to produce the knowledge base George Brown knew would be needed to make wise decisions. Whether we make the necessary decisions is up to our generation, every generation has a 'generational responsibility' as we, at GreenPolicy360 see the challenges all of us must face, as Planet Citizens and act wisely and with vision...

Starting with our home planet, Earth, we see in the original decades of NASA and its Mission Statement the guiding words of visionaries who launched a first generation of planetary science and exploration...

鈥淭o understand and protect our home planet; to explore the universe and search for life; to inspire the next generation of explorers ... as only NASA can.鈥

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